Kidney Stones: Your kidneys remove fluid from your blood and waste to make urine. Sometimes, these wastes can build up and stick together in your kidneys when you have too much of certain wastes and not enough fluid in your blood. These clumps of waste are known kidney stones.
Here you are going to get introduced with causes of kidney stones, symptoms of kidney stones, treatments for kidney stones, how to prevent kidney stones, types of kidney stones and the risk factors of kidney stones.
Anyone can get a kidney stone, but some people are more likely than others to have them. Men get more often kidney stones than women do. These are also more common in non-Hispanic white people than in people of other ethnicities. You may also be more likely to have any type of kidney stones if:
- You have had kidney stones before.
- Someone in your family has had kidney stones.
- You don’t drink enough water.
- You continuously a diet high in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
- You are overweight or obese.
- You have had any intestinal surgery or gastric bypass surgery.
- You have any cystic kidney disease or polycystic kidney disease.
- You have a certain condition which causes your urine to contain high levels of oxalate, cystine, calcium or uric acid.
- You have a condition that causes irritation or swelling in your joints or your bowel.
- You take certain medicines which can be another reason, such as diuretics (water pills) or calcium-based antacids.
If you notice or have a very small kidney stone which moves easily through your urinary tract, you may not have any symptoms at once, and may never know clearly that you had a kidney stone.
You may notice any of the following symptoms only if you have a larger kidney stone:
- Pain while urinating
- Blood in your urine
- Sharp pain in your back or lower abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
If you are having any of these symptoms, contact your health care provider.
The treatment for a kidney stone depends. It depends on the size of the stone, what it is made of, whether it is causing pain and whether it is blocking your urinary tract. To figure out the right treatment for you and to answer these questions, your doctor might ask you for some tests like to have a urine test, blood test, x-ray and/or CT scan. Sometimes uses contrast dye is used by a CT scan. Be sure to tell your doctor about it before you have your CT scan if you have ever had a problem with contrast dye.
Your doctor may tell you to take pain medicine and drink plenty of fluids to help push the stone through your urinary tract if your test results show that your kidney stone is small. Additional and more effective treatment may be necessary if your kidney stone is large, or if it is blocking your urinary tract.
Shock wave lithotripsy is a treatment option. This treatment is different kind that uses shock waves to break up the kidney stones into small pieces. The small pieces of the kidney stone will pass through your urinary tract and out of your body with your urine after the treatment. This treatment usually takes 45 minutes or it may take one hour and may be done under general anesthesia that means you will be asleep and unable to feel pain.
Ureteroscopy is another treatment option. This treatment is also that kind which is also done under general anesthesia. The doctor uses a long tool shaped like a tube to find the stone and also to remove the stone or to find and break the stone into small pieces. The doctor may be able to remove it ff the stone is small. It may need to be broken into pieces if it is large. A laser will be used to break the stone into pieces that are small enough to pass through your urinary tract in this case.
A surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy is needed in rare cases to remove a kidney stone. A tube will be inserted directly into your kidney to remove the stone during the surgery. You will need to be in the hospital for three to four days to have and recover from this treatment.
The best way to prevent and not to be caused most kidney stones is to drink enough fluids every day. People should drink nine to 12 cups of fluid per day. If you need to limit fluids and have kidney disease, ask your doctor how much fluid you should have each day. It may also help to prevent kidney stones limiting sodium and animal protein (meat, eggs) in your diet. Doctor may be able to give you specific diet recommendations to help prevent future kidney stones If he/she can find out what your kidney stone is made of.
Your doctor might tell you to take medicine to treat the condition if you have a health condition that makes you more likely to have kidney stones.
Without talking to your doctor first, never start or stop any treatment or diet!
Calcium stones: These are the most common type and usually seen of kidney stones. They are usually made of oxalate (a natural chemical found in most foods) and calcium, but are sometimes made of phosphate and calcium.
Uric acid stones: These stones form when your urine is often too acidic. Uric acid which is an element of urin can form stones by itself or with calcium.
Struvite stones: These stones can happen when you have certain types of urinary tract infections in which bacteria make ammonia that builds up in your urine. These stones are made of ammonium, magnesium and phosphate.
Cystine stones: These stones are made of a chemical that your body makes naturally, called cystine. These stones are very rare, and happen in people who have already a genetic disorder that causes cystine to leak from the kidneys into the urine.
Kidney stones can be as large–sometimes larger than–a pearl or as small as a grain of sand. They can travel through your ureters (the tubes that go from your kidneys to your bladder) or stay in your kidneys or can get out of your body with your urine. It is called passing a kidney stone when a kidney stone moves through your ureters and out your urethra with your urine. A kidney stone can also block urine from getting through and get stuck in your urinary tract. When a large kidney stone blocks the flow of your urine or you pass a kidney stone, it can be very painful.
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